Gestão & Produção
Gestão & Produção
Artigo Original

Dynamics of coffee output in Nigeria

Ndubuisi Chigozirim Onwusiribe; Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor; Ogbannaya Ukeh Oteh

Downloads: 0
Views: 485


Abstract:: Coffee is a strategic cash crop for poverty reduction and economic growth in Nigeria, and it is consumed worldwide, making it a significant source of income at both the micro and macro levels. This study analysed the trends in ' 'Nigeria's coffee output and the short and long-run determinants of coffee output in Nigeria. A period of 38 years was considered and the data were sourced from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank and the International Coffee Organization. The linear trend and the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model were instrumental in the data analysis. The trend analysis reveals that coffee output is decreasing, necessitating immediate action. Fertiliser use and land availability for farmers require extra attention in the short run because they are significant and had a positive impact on coffee output. In the long-run climate change, producer price and fertiliser use negatively impact the coffee farmers' output. The need to make land easily accessible to coffee farmers by amending land use regulations to ensure the conservation and expansion of farmlands is one of the most notable recommendations of this study.


Coffee, Output, Dynamics, Price, Climate, Land


Ababu, D. G., & Getahun, A. M. (2021). Time series analysis of price of coffee in case of Mettu Town, Ilu Ababor Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, 40(3), 279-284.

Abdlaziz, R. A., Naseem, N. A. M., & Slesman, L. (2018). Dutch disease effect of oil price on agriculture sector: evidence from panel cointegration of oil exporting countries. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 8(5), 241.

Aderolu, I. A., Babalola, F. D., Ugioro, O., Anagbogu, C. F., Ndagi, I., Mokwunye, F. C., & Mokwunye, I. U. (2014). Production and marketing of Coffee (Coffea robusta) in Kogi State, Nigeria: challenges and recommendation for intervention. Journal of Social Science Research, 3(2), 207-215.

Adeyemi, P. A., & Ogunsola, A. J. (2016). The impact of human capital development on economic growth in Nigeria: ARDL approach. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 21(3), 1-7.

African Development Bank (AfDB) Group – AfDB. (2017). Africa's coffee sector: status, challenges and opportunities for growth. Abidjan. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

Ahmed, S., Brinkley, S., Smith, E., Sela, A., Theisen, M., Thibodeau, C., Warne, T., Anderson, E., Van Dusen, N., Giuliano, P., Ionescu, K. E., & Cash, S. B. (2021). Climate change and coffee quality: systematic review on the effects of environmental and management variation on secondary metabolites and sensory attributes of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 708013. PMid:34691093.

Akinpelu, A. O., Oluyole, K. A., Ugwu, C. A., & Alli, M. A. (2021). Determinants of coffee marketing among smallholder coffee farmers in Kogi State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research, 8(3), 13-18.

Akpan, S. B., Ini-mfon, V. P., & Daniel, E. J. (2012). Empirical relationship between trends in cash crop output volatility and agricultural policy periods in Nigeria. International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 1(11), 57-65. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

Al-Abdulkader, A. M., Al-Namazi, A. A., AlTurki, T. A., Al-Khuraish, M. M., & Al-Dakhil, A. I. (2018). Optimising coffee cultivation and its impact on economic growth and export earnings of the producing countries: the case of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 25(4), 776-782. PMid:29740243.

Alabi, R. A., & Adams, O. O. (2015). The pro-poorness of fertiliser subsidy and its implications on food security in Nigeria. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium. Work in Progress (WIP) Report.

Alli, M. A., Kehinde, A. A., Mutiat, O. A., Adejoke, A. A., Qudus, A. O., Chinweike, A. U., & Ayodele, O. A. (2021). Review on coffee research and production in Nigeria in the last one decade (2009- 2018). World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 9(1), 31-36.

Amalu, N. S. (2015). Impact of Boko Haram insurgency on human security in Nigeria. Global Journal of Social Sciences, 14(1), 35-42.

Ambali, A. R., & Murana, A. O. (2017). A reflection on the challenges in Nigerian agricultural policies and the way forward. The Journal of American Science, 14(1), 1-17.

Asghar, N., Qureshi, D. S., & Nadeem, M. (2020). Institutional quality and economic growth: panel ARDL analysis for selected developing economies of Asia. South Asian Studies, 30(2), 381-404.

Ayegboyin, K. O., Famaye, A. O., Akinrinde, E. A., Adejobi, K. B., & Akanbi, O. S. (2015). Growth performance and nutrient uptake of Coffea Canephora Prierre Ex. Froehner grown in contrasting soils. International Journal of Research Studies in Agricultural Sciences, 1(4), 25-31.

Ayele, A., Worku, M., & Bekele, Y. (2021). Trend, instability and decomposition analysis of coffee production in Ethiopia (1993-2019). Heliyon, 7(9), e08022. PMid:34589632.

Ayoola, J. B., Ayoola, G. B., & Ladele, A. A. (2012). An assessment of factors constraining coffee production and marketing in Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Nature, 3(3), 678-683.

Baca, M., Läderach, P., Haggar, J., Schroth, G., & Ovalle, O. (2014). An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica. PLoS One, 9(2), e88463. PMid:24586328.

Bawa, S., Abdullahi, I. S., & Ibrahim, A. (2016). Analysis of inflation dynamics in Nigeria (1981-2015). CBN Journal of Applied Statistics, 7(1b), 255-276.

Bjornlund, V., Bjornlund, H., & van Rooyen, A. (2020). Why agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa remains low compared to the rest of the world: a historical perspective. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 36(Suppl. 1), S20-S53.

Bjornlund, V., Bjornlund, H., & van Rooyen, A. (2022). Why food insecurity persists in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of existing evidence. Food Security, 14(4), 845. PMid:35136455.

Boansi, D., & Crentsil, C. (2013). Competitiveness and determinants of coffee exports, producer price and production for Ethiopia (MPRA Paper, No. 48869). Munich: Munich Personal RePEc Archive. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

Bukuru, E., & Tabitha, N. (2021). Financial factors affecting production efficiency of small scale coffee farms in Burundi. International Journal of Finance and Accounting, 6(2), 57-70.

Castillo, N. E. T., Melchor-Martínez, E. M., Sierra, J. S. O., Ramirez-Mendoza, R. A., Parra-Saldívar, R., & Iqbal, H. M. N. (2020). Impact of climate change and early development of coffee rust–an overview of control strategies to preserve organic cultivars in Mexico. The Science of the Total Environment, 738, 140225. PMid:32806380.

Cervantes-Godoy, D., Dewbre, J., Amegnaglo, C. J., Soglo, Y. Y., Akpa, A. F., Bickel, M., & Swanson, B. E. (2014). The future of food and agriculture: trends and challenges (Tech. Rep.). Rome: FAO.

Christensen, B. V. (2016). Challenges of low commodity prices for Africa (BIS Paper, No. 87). Basel: Bank for International Settlements.

Cleland, D. (2010). The impacts of coffee production on local producers (Senior project). California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo.

Czarniecka-Skubina, E., Pielak, M., Sałek, P., Korzeniowska-Ginter, R., & Owczarek, T.. (2021). Consumer choices and habits related to coffee consumption by poles. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(8), 3948. PMid:33918643.

DaMatta, F. M., & Ramalho, J. D. C. (2006). Impacts of drought and temperature stress on coffee physiology and production: a review. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18(1), 55-81.

Davis, A. P., Gole, T. W., Baena, S., & Moat, J. (2012). The impact of climate change on indigenous arabica coffee (Coffea arabica): predicting future trends and identifying priorities. PLoS One, 7(11), e47981. PMid:23144840.

Dawid, J. (2018). Organic fertilisers requirement of coffee (Coffea arabica L) review. International Journal of Research Studies in Agricultural Sciences, 4(8).

Degaga, J. (2020). Review on coffee production and marketing in Ethiopia. Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research, 67, 7-15.

D'Haese, M., Vannoppen, J., & Van Huylenbroeck, G. (2004). Small-scale farmers in developing countries facing globalising markets: importance of labelling fair-trade coffee. In 85th EAAE Seminar on Agricultural Development and Rural Poverty under Globalisation: Asymmetric Processes and Differentiated Outcomes. Florence: EAAE.

Dickey, D. A., & Fuller, W. A. (1981). Likelihood ratio statistics for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Econometrica, 49(4), 1057-1072.

Dinham, B., & Hines, C. (1984). Agribusiness in Africa. Trenton: Africa World Press.

Duke, E. S., & Cornell, M. H. (2019, February). How climate change is killing coffee. Pennsylvania: Knowledge at Wharton. Austin. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

Edet, E. O., Udoe, P. O., & Abang, S. O. (2018). Economic impact of climate change on cocoa production among South-Western states, Nigeria: results from Ricardian analysis. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 24(2), 171-180.

Esquivel, V., & Jiménez, P. (2012). Functional properties of coffee and coffee by-products. Food Research International, 46(2), 488-495.

Feria-Morales, A. M. (2002). Examining the case of green coffee to illustrate the limitations of grading systems/expert tasters in sensory evaluation for quality control. Food Quality and Preference, 13(6), 355-367.

Fitter, R., & Kaplinksy, R. (2001). Who gains from product rents as the coffee market becomes more differentiated? A value‐chain analysis. IDS Bulletin, 32(3), 69-82.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations – FAO. (2021). FAOSTAT: food balances (2010-). Retrieved in 2022, June 3, from[REMOVED IF= FIELD]

Fuglie, K., & Rada, N. (2013). Resources, policies, and agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa (USDA-ERS Economic Research Report, No. 145). Washington: USDA.

Gizaw, W. (2021). Spatio-temporal variation in area of production, number of holders and productivity of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Khat (Khat edulis L.) in West and East Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting, 9, 285.

Gizaw, W., Mengesha, M., & Nigatu, L. (2021). Analysis of rainfall and temperature variability impacts on coffee (Coffea arabica L.) productivity in Habro District, West Harerghe Zone. Eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Climatology and Weather Forecast, 283(9), 1-7.

Gokavi, N., & Kishor, M. (2020). Impact of climate change on coffee production: an overview. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 9(3), 1850-1858.

Growiec, J., McAdam, P., & Mućk, J. (2018). Endogenous labor share cycles: theory and evidence. Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control, 87, 74-93.

Grüter, R., Trachsel, T., Laube, P., & Jaisli, I. (2022). Expected global suitability of coffee, cashew and avocado due to climate change. PLoS One, 17(1), e0261976. PMid:35081123.

Gylych, J., Jibrin, A. A., Celik, B., & Isik, A. (2020). Impact of oil price fluctuation on the economy of nigeria, the core analysis for energy producing countries. In M. Mohiuddin, J. Wang, M. S. Al Azad & S. Ahmed (Eds.), Global market in the Emerging Business Environment. London: IntechOpen.

Haider, H. (2019). Climate change in Nigeria: impacts and responses. London: K4D.

Hallam, D., & Willebois, I. (2013), Forward: West African Food Systems: an overview of trends and indicators of demand, supply and trade. Rebuilding West Africa's food potential: policies and market incentives for small holder-inclusive food value chains. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Harris, E., Abdul-Aziz, A. R., & Avuglah, R. K. (2012). Modeling annual Coffee production in Ghana using ARIMA time series Model. International Journal of Business and Social Research, 2(7), 175-186.

Harvey, C. A., Pritts, A. A., Zwetsloot, M. J., Jansen, K., Pulleman, M. M., Armbrecht, I., Avelino, J., Barrera, J. F., Bunn, C., García, J. H., Isaza, C., Munoz-Ucros, J., Pérez-Alemán, C. J., Rahn, E., Robiglio, V., Somarriba, E., & Valencia, V. (2021). Transformation of coffee-growing landscapes across Latin America: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 41(5), 62. PMid:34484434.

Hordofa, D. (2021). Does Ethiopian competitive in export of coffee so far and what determines it? Evidence from revealed comparative advantage and autoregressive distributed lag model. Preprints, 2021, 2021040053.

Idrisu, M., Babalola, F. D., Mokwunye, I. U., Anagbogu, C. F., Aderolu, I. A., Ugioro, O., Asogwa, E. U., Ndagi, I., & Mokwunye, F. C. (2012). Adaptive measures for the factors affecting marketing of coffee (Coffea robusta Rio Nunes) in Kogi State, Nigeria. Agrosearch, 12(1), 37-49.

Ikeno, J. (2007). The declining coffee economy and low population growth in Mwanga District, Tanzania. African Study Monographs. Supplementary Issue, 35, 3-39.

International Coffee Council – ICC. (2009). Climate change and coffee103rd session. London.

International Coffee Council – ICC. (2015). Sustainability of the coffee sector in Africa: 114th Session 2-6 March 2015. London. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

International Monetary Fund – IMF. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development – UNCTAD. (2011). Price volatility in food and agricultural markets: policy responses. Rome: FAO.

Jaramillo, J., Setamou, M., Muchugu, E., Chabi-Olaye, A., Jaramillo, A., Mukabana, J., Maina, J., Gathara, S., & Borgemeister, C. (2013). Climate change or urbanisation? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years. PLoS One, 8(1), e51815. PMid:23341884.

Karanja, A. M. (2002). Liberalisation and small-holder agricultural development: a case study of coffee farms in Central Kenya. Wageningen: Wageningen University and Research.

Kasso, M., & Bekele, A. (2018). Postharvest loss and quality deterioration of horticultural crops in Dire Dawa Region, Ethiopia. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 17(1), 88-96.

Kath, J., Byrareddy, V. M., Mushtaq, S., Craparo, A., & Porcel, M. (2021). Temperature and rainfall impacts on robusta coffee bean characteristics. Climate Risk Management, 32, 100281.

Kimenyi, M., Adibe, J., Djiré, M., Jirgi, A. J., Kergna, A., Deressa, T. T., & Westbury, A. (2014). The impact of conflict and political instability on agricultural investments in Mali and Nigeria (Working Paper, Vol. 17). Africa: Africa Growth Initiative.

Knight, M., Loayza, N., & Villanueva, D. (1993). Testing the neoclassical theory of economic growth: a panel data approach. Staff Papers, 40(3), 512-541.

Kollipara, P. (2014). Climate change could slash coffee production. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

Krishnan, S. (2017). Sustainable coffee production. In H. H. Shugart (Ed.), Oxford research encyclopedia of environmental science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Labibah, S., Jamal, A., & Dawood, T. C. (2021). Indonesian export analysis: Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model approach. Journal of Economics, Business, & Accountancy Ventura, 23(3), 320-328.

Lal, R. (1987). Managing the soils of sub-Saharan Africa. Science, 236(4805), 1069-1076. PMid:17799662.

Latif, N. W. A., Abdullah, Z., & Razdi, M. A. M. (2015). An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) analysis of the nexus between savings and investment in the three Asian economies. Journal of Developing Areas, 49(3), 323-334.

Legesse, A. (2019). Climate change effect on coffee yield and quality: a review. International Journal of Horticulture, 5, 1-9.

Lewin, B., Giovannucci, D., & Varangis, P. (2004). Coffee markets new paradigms in global supply and demand. Washington: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Agriculture and Rural Development Department.

Li, X. (2016). Price analysis under production differentiation in green coffee markets (No. 44) (Doctoral thesis). University of Kentucky, Kentucky. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

Machuka, S. M. (2016). Determinants of productivity of small-scale holdings of arabica coffee and its supply response in Kenya: a case study of Kiambu County (Doctoral thesis). University of Tanzania, Tanzania.

Malhi, G. S., Kaur, M., & Kaushik, P. (2021). Impact of climate change on agriculture and its mitigation strategies: a review. Sustainability, 13(3), 1318.

Markelova, H., Meinzen-Dick, R., Hellin, J., & Dohrn, S. (2009). Collective action for small-holder market access. Food Policy, 34(1), 1-7.

Michael, A., Tashikalma, A. K., & Maurice, D. C. (2018). Agricultural inputs subsidy in Nigeria: an overview of the growth enhancement support scheme (GESS). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 66(3), 781-789.

Milder, B. (2008). Closing the gap: reaching the missing middle and rural poor through value chain finance. Enterprise Development & Microfinance, 19(4), 301-316.

Miller, S. M., & Upadhyay, M. P. (2000). The effects of openness, trade orientation, and human capital on total factor productivity. Journal of Development Economics, 63(2), 399-423.

Minh, H. T., Trang, D. T. N., & Chen, J. (2016). Input factors to sustainable development of coffee production in the Dak Lak province. Open Access Library Journal, 3(12), 1-10.

Mkandya, E., Kilima, F. T. M., Lazaro, E. A., & Makindara, J. R. (2010). The impact of market reform programmes on coffee prices in Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 10(1), 38-45.

Mohammed, A. B., Ayanlere, A. F., & Ekenta, C. M. (2013). Profitability of coffee production in Kabba/Bunu local government area of Kogi State Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(23), 2897-2902.

Moyo, S. (2016). Family farming in sub-Saharan Africa: its contribution to agriculture, food security and rural development (Working Paper, No. 150). Rome: FAO.

Nchare, A. (2007). Analysis of factors affecting the technical efficiency of arabica coffee producers in Cameroon. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium.

Ngaruiya, J. K. (1995). Better coffee farming: fertiliser application. Kenya Coffee, 60(709), 2113-2115.

Nkoro, E., & Uko, A. K. (2016). Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration technique: application and interpretation. Journal of Statistical and Econometric Methods, 5(4), 63-91.

Nolte, K., & Ostermeier, M. (2017). Labour market effects of large-scale agricultural investment: conceptual considerations and estimated employment effects. World Development, 98, 430-446.

Ofana, O. G., Efefiom, E. C., & Omini, E. E. (2016). Constraints to agricultural development in Nigeria. International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, 4(2), 19-33.

Ogundeji, B. A., Olalekan-Adeniran, M. A., Orimogunje, O. A., Awoyemi, S. O., Yekini, B. A., Adewoye, G. A., & Bankole, I. A. (2019). Climate hazards and the changing world of coffee pests and diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 41(6), 1-12.

Okafor, C., & Shaibu, I. (2016). Modelling economic growth function in Nigeria: an ARDL approach. Asian Journal of Economics and Empirical Research, 3(1), 84-93.

Oko-Isu, A., Chukwu, A. U., Ofoegbu, G. N., Igberi, C. O., Ololo, K. O., Agbanike, T. F., Anochiwa, L., Uwajumogu, N., Enyoghasim, M. O., Okoro, U. N., & Iyaniwura, A. A. (2019). Coffee output reaction to climate change and commodity price volatility: the Nigeria experience. Sustainability, 11(13), 3503.

Oluwatayo, I. B., Omowunmi, T., & Ojo, A. O. (2019). Land acquisition and use in Nigeria: implications for sustainable food and livelihood security. In L. Loures (Ed.), Land use: assessing the past, envisioning the future (pp. 91-110). London: IntechOpen.

Oniku, A. C., & Akintimehin, O. (2021). Coffee culture: will Nigerians drink coffee like others? Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, 4(3), 236-250.

Onwumere, J. C., Ubokudom, I. A., Eneh, H. C., Okeke, R. C., & Nwachukwu, D. C. (2021). Trend analysis of cocoa industry productivity to selected macroeconomic variables in Nigeria. Journal of Community & Communication Research, 6(2), 130-139.

Onwusiribe, C. N., Nwaiwu, B. N., & Okpokiri, C. I. (2015). Assessment of north insurgency and performance of food dealers in Abia State, Nigeria. Scientific Papers: Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture & Rural Development, 15(3), 1.

Orlowska, I. (2013). Forging a nation: the Ethiopian millennium celebration and the multiethnic state. Nations and Nationalism, 19(2), 296-316.

Parizat, R., van Hilten, H. J., Tressler, E. G., Wheeler, M., Nsibirwa, R. W., Morahan, R., Modelo, M., Spolado, H., De Smet, J., & Pinto, D. (2015). Risk and finance in the coffee sector: a compendium of case studies related to improving risk management and access to finance in the coffee sector (No. 93923, pp. 1-132). Washington: World Bank.

Paul, M. B. (1994). The impact of coffee prices on inflation and the national debt in Uganda. Dakar: United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa, African Institute for Economic Development and Planning. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

Pelupessy, W. (2007). The world behind the world coffee market. Etudes Rurales, (180), 187-212.

Pereira, L. (2017). Climate change impacts on agriculture across Africa. In H. H. Shugart (Ed.), Oxford research encyclopedia of environmental science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pesaran, M. H., & Shin, Y. (1995). An autoregressive distributed lag modelling approach to cointegration analysis (No. 9514). Cambridge: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.

Pesaran, M. H., Shin, Y., & Smith, R. J. (2001). Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(3), 289-326.

Poltronieri, P., & Rossi, F. (2016). Challenges in specialty coffee processing and quality assurance. Challenges, 7(2), 19.

Pons, D., Muñoz, Á. G., Meléndez, L. M., Chocooj, M., Gómez, R., Chourio, X., & Romero, C. G. (2021). A coffee yield next-generation forecast system for rain-fed plantations: the case of the Samalá watershed in Guatemala. Weather and Forecasting, 36(6), 2021-2038.

PricewaterhouseCoopers – PwC (2017). Transforming Nigeria’s agricultural value chain: a case study of the cocoa and dairy industries. London. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

Rehm, C. D., Ratliff, J. C., Riedt, C. S., & Drewnowski, A. (2020). Coffee consumption among adults in the United States by demographic variables and purchase location: analyses of NHANES 2011-2016 data. Nutrients, 12(8), 2463. PMid:32824298.

Robinson, J. L., Hunter, J. M., Reyes-Izquierdo, T., Argumedo, R., Brizuela-Bastien, J., Keller, R., & Pietrzkowski, Z. J. (2020). Cognitive short-and long-term effects of coffee cherry extract in older adults with mild cognitive decline. Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 27(6), 918-934. PMid:31829793.

Rumanzi, P. I., Turyareeba, D., Kaberuka, W., Mbabazize, R. N., & Ainomugisha, P. (2021). Uganda’s growth determinants: a test of the relevance of the neoclassical growth theory. Modern Economy, 12(1), 107-139.

Sachs, J. D., Cordes, K. Y., Rising, J., Toledano, P., & Maennling, N. (2019). Ensuring economic viability and sustainability of coffee production. New York: Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment.

Sakyi, D. (2011). Trade openness, foreign aid and economic growth in post-liberalisation Ghana: an application of ARDL bounds test. Journal of Economics and International Finance, 3(3), 146-156.

Shrestha, M. B., & Bhatta, G. R. (2018). Selecting appropriate methodological framework for time series data analysis. The Journal of Finance and Data Science, 4(2), 71-89.

Singh, V., & Verma, D. (2017). Processing technology and potential health benefits of coffee. In D. K. Verma & M. R. Goyal (Eds.),Engineering interventions in foods and plants (pp. 89-117). New York: Apple Academic Press.

Soule, B. G. (2013). Analytical review of national investment strategies and agricultural policies for the promotion of staple food value chains in West Africa: West African food systems: an overview of trends and indicators of demand, supply and trade. Rebuilding West Africa's food potential: policies and market incentives for small holder-inclusive food value chains. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, International Fund for Agricultural Development.

Sousa, A. G., Machado, L. M., Silva, E. F., & Costa, T. H. (2016). Personal characteristics of coffee consumers and non-consumers, reasons and preferences for foods eaten with coffee among adults from the Federal District, Brazil. Food Science and Technology, 36(3), 432-438.

Ssenkaaba, J. (2019). Price determination in coffee market: the impact of supply and demand shifts (Master's thesis). School of Business and Economics, The Artic University of Norway, Norway. Retrieved in 2022, June 5, from

Swaray, R. (2007). How did the demise of international commodity agreements affect volatility of primary commodity prices? Applied Economics, 39(17), 2253-2260.

Talbot, J. M. (1997). Where does your coffee dollar go?: the division of income and surplus along the coffee commodity chain. Studies in Comparative International Development, 32(1), 56-91.

Tinoco-Zermeno, M. A., Venegas-Martínez, F., & Torres-Preciado, V. H. (2014). Growth, bank credit, and inflation in Mexico: evidence from an ARDL-bounds testing approach. Latin American Economic Review, 23(1), 1-22.

Tollens, E. (2002). Market information systems in liberalized african export commodity markets: the case of cocoa and coffee in Cote D'Ivoire, Nigeria and Cameroon (No. 1067-2016-86810). Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Tosh, J. (1980). The cash-crop revolution in tropical Africa: an agricultural reappraisal. African Affairs, 79(314), 79-94.

Udoh, E., Afangideh, U., & Udeaja, E. A. (2015). Fiscal decentralisation, economic growth and human resource development in Nigeria: Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. CBN Journal of Applied Statistics, 6(1), 69-93.

Valkila, J. (2009). Fair Trade organic coffee production in Nicaragua: sustainable development or a poverty trap? Ecological Economics, 68(12), 3018-3025.

van Asten, P. J., Wairegi, L. W. I., Mukasa, D., & Uringi, N. O. (2011). Agronomic and economic benefits of coffee-banana intercropping in Uganda’s small-holder farming systems. Agricultural Systems, 104(4), 326-334.

Verter, N., Bamwesigye, D., & Darkwah, S. A. (2015). Analysis of coffee production and exports in Uganda. In International Conference on Applied Business Research (Vol. 1, pp. 1083-1090).

Volsi, B., Telles, T. S., Caldarelli, C. E., & Camara, M. R. G. D. (2019). The dynamics of coffee production in Brazil. PLoS One, 14(7), e0219742. PMid:31335891.

Wasihun, G. F. (2019). Trend analysis of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) productivity, area of production and numbers of holders in Ethiopia. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 9(15), 1-6.

Yovo, K. (2021). The response of coffee and cocoa supply to the price volatility: the case of Togo. American Journal of Economics, 11(2), 49-56.

Yusuf, A., & Mohd, S. (2021). The impact of government debt on economic growth in Nigeria. Cogent Economics & Finance, 9(1), 1946249.

634967f7a953950d2a1f5b74 gp Articles

Gest. Prod.

Share this page
Page Sections