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https://gestaoeproducao.com/article/doi/10.1590/0104-530x2691-18
Gestão & Produção
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Capacidade de absorção, exploração e explotação: uma análise em empresas de Palmas, Tocantins

Absorptive capacity, exploration, and exploitation: an analysis of the companies in Palmas, Tocantins

Silvio Popadiuk; Suzana Gilioli da Costa Nunes

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Resumo

Resumo O tema desta pesquisa diz respeito às relações entre as orientações estratégicas de exploitation (explotação) e exploration (exploração) e a capacidade de absorção do conhecimento organizacional. Os três temas discutidos caracterizam-se como de grande relevância para a geração de vantagem competitiva sustentável para as organizações. Em geral, embora inseridos na discussão de aprendizagem organizacional, ainda estão em fase de evolução quanto aos seus componentes relativos a antecedentes, moderadores e resultantes, como poderá ser observado no referencial teórico. Não foi possível a identificação de estudos com características similares às aqui apresentadas, ou seja, estudos que relacionem exploração e explotação com a capacidade de absorção, particularmente no contexto brasileiro. O objetivo principal foi avaliar o grau de associação entre exploração e explotação e a capacidade absorção. Foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa de caráter quantitativo com 100 empresas dos setores de comércio e de serviços sediadas na cidade de Palmas, Estado do Tocantins. A escolha do setor se deu pela concentração de empresas com tal característica na cidade estudada. Foram informantes os gestores que trabalhavam nessas empresas. O questionário aplicado envolveu a utilização de duas escalas. Uma para a mensuração das orientações para exploração e explotação e outra referente à mensuração da capacidade de absorção do conhecimento, ambas validadas por estudos anteriores. Para a verificação da hipótese principal, a técnica utilizada envolveu Modelagem de Equações Estruturais, mediante o software PLS-PM. Os conceitos de exploração e explotação foram baseados em seis dimensões: práticas de conhecimento organizacional, práticas de inovação, foco estratégico, competição, parcerias e eficiência. O conceito de capacidade de absorção ficou traduzido por duas dimensões: capacidade potencial e capacidade realizada. Os resultados demonstraram que as empresas pesquisadas possuem orientação para explotação. Em relação à capacidade de absorção, as empresas possuíam alto grau de predominância de relacionamento com o ambiente, rotinas e procedimentos e conhecimento público. A hipótese principal foi confirmada, indicando uma relação positiva entre exploração, explotação e a capacidade de absorção.

Palavras-chave

Exploração, Explotação, Capacidade de absorção do conhecimento, PLS-PM

Abstract

Abstract This research is about the relationship between the exploitation, exploration, and absorptive capacity of the organizational knowledge. The three themes are of great importance to the sustainable competitive advantage of organizations. In general, although they are inserted in the discussion of organizational learning, they are still in the evolutionary process regarding antecedents, moderators, and outcomes, as can be observed in the theoretical reference. It has not been possible to identify studies with similar characteristics as the one presented here, i.e., studies linking exploration and exploitation with absorptive capacity, particularly in the Brazilian context. The main objective was to evaluate the degree of association between exploration, exploitation, and absorptive capacity. This study used quantitative research in 100 companies operating in commerce and services sectors, all located in the city of Palmas, Tocantins State. The sector was chosen based on the concentration of commercial and services companies in the city. The informants were the managers who worked in these companies. The questionnaire involved the use of two scales: one scale for the measurement of exploration and exploitation, and the other scale for measuring the absorptive capacity, both validated by early studies. The technique involved structural equation modeling using Partial Least Square-Path Modeling (PLS-PM) software was used for the verification of the principal hypothesis. The concepts of exploration and exploitation were based on six dimensions: organizational knowledge practices, innovation practices, strategic orientation, competition, partnerships, and efficiency. The concept of absorptive capacity was based on four dimensions: porosity, routines and structures, public knowledge, and individual abilities. The results showed that companies had exploitation orientation. Regarding the absorptive capacity, companies had a high relationship with the environment, with routines and with procedures, and with public knowledge. The main hypothesis was confirmed, indicating a positive relationship between exploration, exploitation, and absorptive capacity.

Keywords

Exploration, Exploitation, Absorptive capacity, PLS-PM

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