Analysis of the agricultural productivity of the sugarcane crop in regions of new agricultural expansions of sugarcane
The launching of biofuel vehicles in 2003 led to ethanol demand increase and a new phase of expansion of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil. Although the increase in area of production and the quantity of sugarcane produced have been very important to Brazilian agribusiness, the recent agricultural productivity rate has slowed. In this context, this article analyzed the factors that influence the growth rate of sugarcane productivity in the regions of new agricultural expansions, specifically in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Goias. For the collection and data analysis, we used bibliographical and documentary research. The shift-share method was used to analyze the evolution of sugarcane production, through the decomposition of this variable into two factors: area effect and productivity effect. The results show that the increase in production in the region under analysis was mainly due to the incorporation of new planting areas and not to an increase in productivity. In addition, structural factors have negatively impacted crop performance. The analysis indicates that there is a slow rhythm of sugarcane fields’ renovation and the adoption of old varieties. Although the mechanization index is high in the studied regions, difficulties of technological adaptation still provide deficiency in the agricultural performance of sugarcane.